Grammar: Commands


Requests
Subordinates to superiors, to a stranger.

1. To a stranger: すいません。まどをしめて下さい。Excuse me. Will you please close the window?


Polite Commands
Superiors to subordinates.

2. A parent to a child: もっと野菜(さい)を食べなさい。Eat more vegetables!
3. A teacher to a student: キムさん、廊下(ろうか)に立(た)っていなさい。Mr. Kim, go stand in the hallway!
4. A policeman to a speeding car: 前の車、止(と)まりなさい。(lit.) the car in front, stop!

+Template
5. [ます-form] + なさい
6. 書きます → 書きなさい


Plain Commands
Sounds very blunt and harsh; thus its use is quite limited.

7. An angry father to a son: おい、早(はや)く食べろ。Hey, eat quickly!
8. A drunk customer to a waitress: ビールを持(も)って来い。Bring me beer!

Quoting a Command
9. 母は早く起きろと言った。Mother told me to get up quickly.
10. 父はもっと勉強しろと言った。Father told me to study more.
11. The above sentences do not necessarily imply that the actual commands were blunt. That is, what the father actually said could have been either もっと勉強しなさい or もっと勉強しろ.


Plain Negative Commands
Sounds very blunt and harsh; thus its use is quite limited.
12. A drunk man talking to another man: おい、おれのビールを飲むな。Hey, don't drink my beer!

Quoting a Command
13. 母はタバコを吸(す)うなと言った。Mother told me not to smoke.
*There is no harshness when quoted.

Template
15. [Dict Form] + な
16. 書く → 書くな